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TOURISM DESTINATION AND MANAGEMENT
Date of Submission
A Tourism destination is the most significant and fundamental unit of from which the several dimensions of tourism derive basis. It is the point of delivery of products of tourism and defines the implementation of the policies of tourism. It is a projection/representation of the image and identity of tourism.Modeled, the sector of tourism would a assume a circular figure with the destination at the epitome. Visitors, community, regional authorities, industry services and the management organization all bear their operations on an energy level around the destination.For instance, the Waikiki beach in Hawaii, US, makes a destination that pulls a massive tourists population annually. In Hawaii, it is significant as it strengthens the region’s economy in various ways. The residents at its location, Honolulu, make up the recipient community that is affected in different manners by the destination. The destination has strengthened them economically but in as much, any adverse effects that would emanate from the destination would also bear a negative repercussion on their well being. The destination is located on Oahu Island and is as such subject to government protection through the Oahu administration. The regional authorities not only protect the beach, but also safeguard the residents from any dangers they would be exposed to from the beach (Pfister and Tierney 2009, 41). Considering that it is a beach, the various resorts and hotels that have established a base in the region play the role of managing the destination, in partnership with the marine authorities and local police.Waikiki gets a high number of annual visitors who seek to rest on the island and who get their services from the hotelier industry established in the island.
The integration of elements and their coordination are the definitions of destination management (Laws 1995, 53). Destination management mires with tourism plan and strategy and the mix elements that include events, infrastructure, facilities and hospitality resources. Such management is always accredited to organizations that bear the responsibility of conducting or overseeing the processes named above. The organizations’ (DMOs) structures take variations according to the practices of its hosting community and systems of the hosting government (Ritchie and Campiranon 2014, 59).The factors that call for management in a destination include people (visitors and residents), physical products inclusive of transportation, attractions and facilities and programs. The organizations also manage the packages presented to the visitors and research and planning involving the destination (Harrill and Lodg 2012, 63).
Application of Destination Management
In the US, there are several parks that attract several visitors annually, thus generating much revenue for the US government (Harrill and Lodg 2012, 64). The parks have been placed under the management of National Park Service by the government. The organization is thus entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring that the local communities around the parks derive maximum benefits from the touring activities. In addition, it ensures that the visitors are guaranteed satisfaction during their visits. Any activity that concerns the parks must also get the consent of the organization and must be supervised by the organization (Laws 1995, 53).
Minimizing Risks and Maximizing Benefits for a Tourism Destination
Managers have the obligation of ensuring that negative repercussions in a tourism locality are limited (Woodside and Martin 2008, 34). On the contrary, they should ensure that there are benefits for the place. To meet the responsibility, the managers are required to take into account a stream of operational and strategic interventions. Such considerations harmonize the tourism with the hosting locality, making it bearable and comfortable for either party to develop a mutual relationship (Laws, Prideaux and Chon 2007, 26).Managers have adopted a governance that is neo-liberal and comes with the introduction of actions and policies that channel the tourism financial output in the poor communities (Laws, Prideaux and Chon 2007, 26). As such, the community is encouraged to participate in the supply chain. They are also encouraged to form enterprises (Pfister and Tierney 2009, 52). Promoting such pro-poor tourism is a strategy that managers use to maximize benefits for the destination community by spreading the social and economic benefits throughout the community. The approach improves income, opportunities and services to the poor (World Tourism Organization 2007, 11).Managers also equip the recipient communities with local control to make them feel less threatened. The approach involves inclusion of the communities as stakeholders with some level of voice in the manner of operations of the tourism business (Woodside and Martin 2008, 37). This promotes their well-being and provides the grounds for defining the limits of tourism of actions that would otherwise infringe their rights. They are involved in decisions that have an effect in their community and are also duly informed of available opportunities (Marshall and Taylor 2006, 36).To further make sure that the residents get maximum benefits from the tourism industry, the managers also implement policies that encourage local spending by the tourists (Ritchie and Campiranon 2014, 56). The organization can promote the use of local produce and employing of local labor thus creating jobs. The policies can also include infrastructure development. For instance, the organization can put up roads and improve medical facilities (Marshall and Taylor 2006, 37).Establishing well-defined parameters around the destinations also reduces the attack of the residents by savage animals and predators. The destructive nature of some animals can lay a setback to the development of a region (Ritchie and Campiranon 2014, 57). For instance, tropical animals like the elephants and hippos destroy agricultural farms thus reducing the food supply for the residents (Pfister and Tierney 2009, 22). Establishing of substantial barriers around such parks would hence ensure that the residents engage in their activities uninterrupted (World Tourism Organization 2007, 12).
Role of Marketing in Destination Development
The process of marketing, in a business perspective, projects the act of packaging and presenting a package in a manner that influences the decision to take the package as preference by the target (Pforr and Hosie 2009, 71). The process bears a rather similar significance in tourism and has a significant effect on destination development (Gartrell 1994, 37). It is a communication that involves the persuasion of travelers to lure them immensely to a place.Marketing in Tourism is usually conducted by organizations with the capacity to impact on a tourist’s decision to travel. As such, they play a factor in choosing a destination for travelers by presenting to them all the plausible reasons to visit a place. By presenting a destination as perfect and making desirable to the travelers, the marketing organizations develop the destination. Marketing is important in tourism as it avails touring clients to a place and keep them there (Gartrell 1994, 46).
Elements of Promotional Campaign
A campaign to promote tourism bears a great strain upon the elements that would project a destination as desirable and with the capacity to fulfill the travelers’ quest to traverse regions. A marketing campaign should hence meet the objectives of the touring organization. Below are elements that should be considered in a promotional campaign (Morrison 2013, 45).Projecting measurable goals that are easy to analyze and comprehend. Such action enables the tracking of success and presents the opportunities of taking relevant remedies in cases of missteps. Little consideration to this factor makes it the process of implementing new marketing initiates mired in complication (Wang and Pizam 2011, 23).The second element is the consideration of implementing goals that maintain relevancy to the marketing (Soteriades 2011, 64). For instance, running a promotional campaign that only earns the destination popularity does not achieve financial success for the place. Goals that are set in a promotional campaign should hence pave the way for the accomplishment of positive results for the destination (Morrison, 2013, 45).Additionally, the objectives should be attainable and time-based (Blattberg, Kim and Neslin 2008, 44). Setting objectives that can be obtained inspires the feeling of success and the motivation to strive for more achievement (Wang and Pizam 2011, 23). It also makes it possible to allocate resources in proportionate manners without excesses wastages. Timing the realization of an objective also assists with the process of allocating resources as goals set for indefinite times drains the resource banks (Beirman 2003, 13). Operating under the guidance of time also inspires the drive to beat a deadline thus timely achievement of the objectives (Blattberg, Kim and Neslin 2008, 45).The other important element of the factors is the objective specificity that informs the implementers of the exact factors to deliver (Pforr and Hosie 2009, 75). Specificity not only identifies the precise objectives but also sets the path through which they should be achieved. As such, it presents simplicity to the entire process. In addition, it makes it possible to choose the right personnel for the processes (Beirman 2003, 13).
List of References
BEIRMAN, D. (2003). Restoring tourism destinations in crisis: a strategic marketing approach. Crows Nest, N.S.W., Allen & Unwin.
BLATTBERG, R. C., KIM, P.-D., & NESLIN, S. A. (2008). Database marketing: analyzing and managing customers. New York, Springer.
GARTRELL, R. B. (1994). Destination marketing for convention and visitor bureaus. Dubuque, Iowa, Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co.
HARRILL, R. ;. A. H. &. L. E. I. ;. A. L. A., &. LODG. (2012). Fundamentals of Destination Management and Marketing with Answer Sheet (Ei). Prentice Hall.
LAWS, E. (1995). Tourist destination management: issues, analysis and policies. London, Routledge.
LAWS, E., PRIDEAUX, B., & CHON, K. S. (2007). Crisis management in tourism. Wallingford, Oxon, CABI Pub. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10159722.
MARSHALL, S., & TAYLOR, W. (2006). Encyclopedia of developing regional communities with information and communication technology. Hershey, Pa. [u.a.], Idea Group Reference.
MORRISON, A. M. (2013). Marketing and managing tourism destinations. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=670620.
PFISTER, R. E., & TIERNEY, P. T. (2009). Recreation, event, and tourism businesses: start-up and sustainable operations. Champaign, IL, Human Kinetics.
PFORR, C., & HOSIE, P. (2009). Crisis management in the tourism industry: beating the odds? Farnham, England, Ashgate.
RITCHIE, B. W., & CAMPIRANON, K. (2014). Tourism crisis and disaster management in the Asia-Pacific.
SOTERIADES, M. (2011). Tourism destination marketing: improving efficiency and effectiveness. Saarbrücken, Germany, Lambert Academic Publishing.
WANG, Y., & PIZAM, A. (2011). Destination marketing and management theories and applications. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, CABI. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9781845937621.0000.
WOODSIDE, A. G., & MARTIN, D. (2008). Tourism management: analysis, behaviour and strategy. Wallingford, UK, CABI Pub.
WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION. (2007). A practical guide to tourism destination management. Madrid, World Tourism Organization.
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